In 1983 and for the next 10 years, researchers began to study whether intensifying diabetes management among people living with Type 1 made a difference. Up to this point there had not been long term research to provide data to prove this to institute change.
When I was diagnosed in 1975, I started on one injection of NPH and Toronto in the morning. A Keto-Diastix before & after school & at bedtime was dipped in a urine sample to determine sugar & ketones. Little did we know that it was not an accurate test of glucose control. Every 3 months my blood work was done & thankfully my A1C as well. We would see the Paediatrician shortly after.
In 1981, an extra injection of NPH & Toronto was added at supper time. Around that same time I received my first glucose meter.
This study has changed the way people with Type 1 diabetes are managed. It was & still is exciting!
Here is what the Diabetes & Complications Control Trial is about.
There were 1,441 people from Canada & the U.S from 29 centres living with Type 1 diabetes more than 1 year but less than 15 years. They could not take part if they had too many or severe low blood sugars, severe complications or limited life expectancy. The ages studied ranged between 13 and 39. Young children were not studied. There were 2 groups; 1 had their diabetes managed intensively, the others managed as before.
The main goal was to keep blood sugars as normal as possible through a criteria of intense methods for diabetes management.
Clinical findings & significance:
1. The risk of eye complications were reduced 76%.
2. The risk of complications of the kidney were reduced by 50%.
3. The risk of nerve complications were reduced by 60%.
4. By keeping blood sugar’s as normal as possible, the onset & progression of eye, kidney & nerve damage caused by diabetes slowed.
5. Even those who had a history of poor control who sustained any type of BG lowering showed a difference in the progression of complications.
6. For those who already had eye complications by participating in intensive management of their diabetes, they saw the progression of the complication slow by 54%.
What is Intensive Management?
1. Testing BG 4 or more times a day.
2. Injecting insulin at least 3 times per day or using an insulin pump.
3. Following a diet & exercise plan.
4. Monthly visits to a health care team which consists of a physician, nurse, dietician & behavioural therapist.
Risks involved with participating in an intensive management therapy? Low blood sugars. It was clear that less stringent goals are appropriate for some patients.
This trial has become the pioneer of studies that changed the management of Type 1 diabetes . Since completion of the study in 1993 there has been further work done to answer more questions & give more data. I will continue to post on these.